The teeth are a group of hard organs found in the oral cavity. We use teeth to grind (or chew) food into tiny pieces. Teeth also provide shape to the mouth and face .Teeth are important components in producing speech. A tooth can be divided into two main parts: the crown and root. Found above the gum line, the crown is the enlarged region of the tooth involved in chewing.
Like an actual crown, the crown of a tooth has many ridges on its top surface to aid in the chewing of food. Below the gum line is the region of the tooth called the root, which anchors the tooth into a bony socket known as an alveolus Roots are tapered structures resembling the roots of plants, and each tooth may have between one to three roots.
How to Do Teeth Care
The exterior surface of the root is covered in a bone-like mixture of calcium and collagen fibers known as cementum. Cementum provides grip for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the root to the surrounding alveolus.
Each tooth is an organ consisting of three layers: the pulp, dentin, and enamel.
The pulp of the tooth is a vascular region of soft connective tissues in the middle of the tooth. Tiny blood vessels and nerve fibers enter the pulp through small holes in the tip of the roots to support the hard outer structures. Stem cells known as odontoblasts form the dentin of the tooth at the edge of the pulp.
Surrounding the pulp is the dentin, a tough, mineralized layer of tissue. Dentin is much harder than the pulp due to the presence of collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that is one of the strongest materials found in nature. The structure of the dentin layer is very porous, allowing nutrients and materials produced in the pulp to spread through the tooth.
The enamel – the white, outer layer of the crown – forms an extremely hard, nonporous cap over the dentin. Enamel is the hardest substance in the body and is made almost exclusively of hydroxyapatite.
Teeth are classified into four major groups: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
- Incisors are chisel-shaped teeth found in the front of the mouth and have a flat apical surface for cutting food into smaller bits.
- Canine teeth, also known as cuspids, are sharply pointed, cone-shaped teeth that are used for ripping tough material like meat. They flank the incisors on both sides.
- Premolars (bicuspids) and molars are large, flat-surfaced teeth found in the back of the mouth. Peaks and valleys on the flat apical surface of premolars and molars are used for chewing and grinding food into tiny pieces.
Babies are born without teeth, but grow a temporary set of twenty deciduous teeth (eight incisors, four canines, and eight molars) between the ages of six months and three years. Baby teeth fill the child’s tiny jaws and allow the child to chew food while larger, stronger adult teeth develop inside the mandible and maxilla bones. At about six years of age the deciduous teeth are slowly shed one at a time and replaced by permanent adult teeth.
Adult teeth develop while hidden within the maxilla and mandible after the deciduous teeth have erupted. When an adult tooth erupts, it triggers the roots of the deciduous tooth above it to atrophy. This causes the baby tooth to become loose and eventually fall out. The new permanent tooth slowly pushes up through the gums to replace the baby tooth. Eventually, a total of thirty-two permanent adult teeth form and erupt. The adult teeth are arranged in both the upper and lower jaws from the midline of the mouth as follows: central incisor, lateral incisor, canine (cuspid), first premolar (bicuspid), second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar.
The first twenty-eight adult teeth are fully erupted by the age of eleven to thirteen with the third molars, known as wisdom teeth, erupting in the back of the jaw several years later in early adulthood. Sometimes the wisdom teeth become impacted when they grow and become wedged at an abnormal position in the jaws and fail to erupt. In some cases there is not enough room in the jaw to accommodate a third set of molars. In both cases the wisdom teeth are surgically removed, as they are not needed to properly chew food.
Mastication, or chewing, is the main function of the teeth. The teeth are aligned in the jaws so that the peaks of one tooth align with the valleys of its counterpart on the other jaw. Every bite forces food into the interface of the teeth to be chopped, while lateral motion of the jaw is used to grind food in the premolars and molars.
Tooth decay and cavities are important health concerns related to the teeth. The enamel that covers the crown in each tooth can be broken down by acids produced by bacteria that live in the mouth and assist in digestion of small bits of food. This process of enamel erosion by acids is called decay. To prevent decay, good oral hygiene, consisting of daily brushing and flossing, is necessary. Decay can eventually lead to cavities, also known as dental caries, where holes appear in the enamel and expose the dentin. Cavities require medical intervention to prevent their growth, usually resulting in the removal of the affected tissue and the filling of the cavity with a hard material to restore the strength and function of the tooth.
We need to take good care of our teeth which will help us to live a long, healthy, pain-free life. In order to keep your teeth healthy, it is important to develop a good dental care routine early in life and maintain them as you get older. You can do this by practicing good oral hygiene, eating a healthy diet, and supplementing these good habits with professional care if necessary.
How to Care your Teeth
Healthy teeth and gums not only give you a beautiful smile but also indicate good oral health and hygiene that play a very important role in your life. Good oral hygiene helps prevent cavities and stained or yellowed teeth as well as bad breath. It is essential to your overall health as well. Taking good care of your teeth will help you live a long, healthy, pain-free life. In order to keep your teeth healthy, it is important to develop a good dental care routine early in life and maintain them as you get older. You can do this by practicing good oral hygiene, eating a healthy diet, and supplementing these good habits with professional care when necessary. Most people know dental health is important, but do they know what to do to achieve optimal dental health? There are some simple ways to keep your teeth and gums strong and healthy from childhood to old age.
When you brush your teeth, you should do continue brushes at least two minutes. This will give you the time you need to get to all surfaces of your teeth. Make sure you remember the backs of your teeth. Teach your children good oral hygiene habits by having them start brushing as soon as they get their first baby teeth. Cavities in baby teeth will be just as uncomfortable as cavities in permanent teeth.
- For best results, use a soft bristled brush or an electric toothbrush. Whichever type of toothbrush you use be sure to replace it every three months. If you are concerned that your toothbrush might be worn out earlier, you can inspect it to see if the bristles are bent and damaged. If so, you may want to replace it.
- Brushing regularly will not only give you healthy, pain-free teeth, but it will also keep your breath fresh. But don’t brush too soon after eating. After you eat your mouth is more acidic and this makes the enamel temporarily softer. Wait at least 30 minutes before brushing.
- Begin brushing in the back of the mouth and follow the same course each time. Creating a standard routine for brushing helps you build good habits.
- Brush in a circular motion downward from the gums. This loosens the debris that tends to build up around the gum line.
- Brush the front and back surfaces of all teeth. Believe it or not, some brushers focus on the front surface and neglect behind the teeth.
- Brush the biting surface of all teeth. This loosens food particles that settle in the area.
- Brush the tongue and inside of cheeks. Bacteria build up in these locations, too. Brushing the soft surfaces in your mouth promotes fresh breath.
- Finish with a rinse. This is different than traditional mouthwash, which can sometimes contain sugar. Speak with your dentist about an oral rinse that is best for you.
Make sure you use this brushing routine after every meal, or at least twice a day. Brushing should take you about two minutes, if done properly. If you tend to speed things up and cut corners, set a timer beside your bathroom sink to ensure you are brushing for the appropriate amount of time.
Flossing your teeth is one of the most important things ,you can do to protect the health of your teeth and gums but it is something overlooked by many.
- The goal of flossing is to remove plaque and food particles from areas a toothbrush is unable to reach, so focus on your gum line and between your teeth during the process.
- Cut a length of floss that leaves you plenty of excess to wrap around your fingers and still have enough to hold taut while working in an up and down motion between teeth.
- Curve the piece around the base of each tooth in a C-shape and work beneath the gum line. As you move from section to section, unwind the excess and use a clean part of the strand as you go.
- Some people find plastic flossing tools make the process easier. They achieve the same results, so choose whatever method is most likely to get you flossing on a regular basis.
Another consideration for teeth and gum care is your diet. The foods you eat and beverages you drink all have an effect on your teeth. Avoid sugary foods and drinks, such as cakes, cookies, candy, and sugary gum. Don’t forget foods that include “hidden” sugar, such as bread, crackers, and dried fruit. If you must drink sugary beverages, sip them through a straw to avoid washing teeth in the liquid, tray to avoid eat or drink oily and sugary food in late night.
- Avoid Grinding
Tooth grinding occurs when you gnash your upper and lower rows of teeth together. Some people do this in their sleep but others find they are pressing their teeth together when awake, too. It is usually an unconscious action and may be a result of stress or tension. If you are someone who grinds, try to be aware of the action throughout the day. Stretch and hold your mouth open for several seconds to release the tension. You can do this at bedtime and several times throughout the day. Your dentist may also recommend wearing a grinding shield to form a barrier between your upper and lower teeth.
- Know the Early Signs of Gum Disease
Knowing if an oral health problem is present is an important part of keeping your teeth and gums healthy. Gum disease can be treated quite easily if detected early enough. If you experience itching or soreness of the gums or your gums are swollen or bleed from gentle brushing, you may be developing gum disease. Other symptoms include bad breath and mouth sores.
- Know How Non-Dental Issues Affect Your Dental Health
It is also important to understand how your other health issues affect your oral health. If you suffer from diabetes, heart disease, cancer, or any other disease, speak with your dentist about your dental health risks. There may be things you can do to protect your teeth and gums when dealing with other health issues.
- Oil Pulling
Oil pulling, also known as oil swishing, is an age-old practice used in Ayurveda that helps strengthen the teeth, gums and jaw while preventing tooth decay. It helps draw out bacteria from the mouth, keeps your gums healthy and brightens your teeth.
- Put 1 tablespoon of sesame oil in your mouth.
- Gently swish it around for about 20 minutes.
- Spit it out. Avoid gargling or swallowing the oil.
- Rinse your mouth out with warm water. Use salt water for added antimicrobial benefits.
- Brush your teeth as usual.
- Do this daily in the morning, on an empty stomach.
You can also do oil pulling with coconut oil. Do not gargle or swallow the oil.
Turmeric contains antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that help keep the gums healthy and teeth free from bacterial infection.
A 2012 study published in the Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology found turmeric mouthwash to be effective in controlling plaque and preventing gingivitis.
- Add a little water to ¼ teaspoon of turmeric powder to make a paste. Brush your teeth with it, a few times a week.
- Alternatively, prepare a paste with 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder and ½ teaspoon each of salt and mustard oil. Massage it on your teeth and gums once daily.
- You can also boil ½ teaspoon of turmeric powder in 1 cup of water, allow it to cool and use it as a mouthwash once daily.
- Guava Leaves
According to a review of studies published in the Pharmacognosy Review in 2014, guava leaves are effective in the treatment of periodontal disease. As an excellent antiplaque, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, guava leaves help maintain strong teeth and gums.They also help keep your breath fresh and clean. Herbalists recommend using tender leaves or tender twigs of guava trees to maintain oral hygiene.
- Chew a few well-washed tender guava leaves thoroughly, then spit them out.
- You can also grind some tender guava leaves and use it as toothpaste to brush your teeth.
- Another option is to prepare a mouth rinse by boiling 4 to 6 guava leaves in 1 cup of water for about 5 minutes. Strain the water and allow it to cool. Use it as a daily mouthwash.
The Neem also known as Indian lilac, has antibacterial properties that help maintain oral health by easily destroying bacteria that cause cavities, plaque, gingivitis and gum disease.In a 2011 study published in the Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, researchers found neem to be effective for treating plaque-induced gingivitis.
- Grind 2 or 3 neem leaves into a paste. Use this paste to brush your teeth a few times a week.
- You can also rub the juice from neem leaves on your teeth and gums, allow it to sit for 5 minutes and then rinse it off with warm water. Do this daily.
- You can even use a twig from a neem tree to brush your teeth.
- Green Tea
A 2012 study published in the Archives of Oral Biology found green tea to be a promising natural product in oral health. The natural fluoride, polyphenols and catechins in green tea can destroy the bacteria that cause tooth decay, cavities and gum disease. It also prevents bad breath.
- Drink 3 to 4 cups of green tea every day. To promote oral health, drink green tea without sugar or honey.
- You can even chew sugarless gum made with green tea.
According to a 2011 study published in the American Chemical Society’s Journal of Natural Products, licorice root may help keep your teeth and gums healthy. Scientists reported that the two predominant compounds in licorice, licoricidin and licorisoflavan A, help kill the major bacteria responsible for tooth decay and gum disease, the leading causes of tooth loss in children and adults.
- Use a little bit of dried licorice root powder to brush your teeth on a regular basis.
- You can also use a soft licorice stick like a toothbrush to brush your teeth daily.
- Use fluoride toothpaste.
Fluoride protects the enamel and makes you less likely to get cavities. But it is important that the toothpaste have enough fluoride to be effective. Make sure it has at least 1,350-1500 ppm. Toothpastes with less than 1000 ppm of fluoride will be ineffective at protecting your teeth. Children can use full strength toothpaste if an adult makes sure they spit it out after brushing.
- Use mouthwash.
Look for a mouthwash that has fluoride in it. If you use a fluoride mouthwash after brushing and flossing, this will help the fluoride reach the enamel of all surfaces of your teeth. Swish the mouthwash around in your mouth for two minutes to allow it to thoroughly coat all areas of your teeth. You can also make a natural remedy using a salt solution. Put half teaspoon of salt into a glass of warm water and stir.
Don’t swallow the mouthwash because it may upset your stomach. If you want to try to kill bacteria further back in your throat, you can gargle briefly before spitting it out.
- Quite smoking or overusing Tobacco Product.
Smoking will stain your teeth yellow, give you bad breath, and make you more likely to get gum disease or mouth cancers. Avoid using Tambago or Zorda or some others chemical which is dangerous for our health also.
- Quite your bed habit
Reduce the amount of alcohol you drink, better is quite the bad habit of drinking Alcohol. Alcohol damages the enamel on your teeth and increases your risk of tooth decay.
- Eat less sticky foods.
Avoid eating less Sticky Food. These foods leave a thin layer of sugar on your teeth which are difficult to remove and increase your risk of tooth decay.
- Crunchy Fruit or Veggie
Let your teeth clean with a crunchy fruit or veggie. This particularly effective at the end of a meal or as a healthy snack between meals. Consider eating more Apples, Broccoli, Peppers, Carrots, Lettuce, Cucumbers, and Celery
- Go to a dentist if you notice a problem developing.
If you find any problem developing in your teeth then don’t wait until it’s extremely painful. If you don’t have dental insurance, you may be able to find affordable care by contacting dental schools, searching for free clinics online at the websites of organizations or contacting your community health center or local health department.
- Permanent teeth that is loose
- Red, swollen, or painful gums
- Swelling in your jaw
- Bad breath or a strange taste in your mouth that doesn’t go away
- Sensitivity to the temperature of your food
- Let The Dentist Polish Your Teeth.
For best long-term results, you should have your teeth examined and cleaned twice a year. This will involve:
- Inspecting your teeth for signs of decay
- Teaching you how to brush and floss most effectively
- Cleaning each surface of each tooth
- Scraping away hard plaques that have built up